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The Broad Institute in Boston (managed by Harvard and MIT) analyzes the effect of molecules on human genes to predict the most effective method for the treatment of diseases. Their Connectivity Map is a large database that contains more than 7,000 gene expression profiles of 5 human cell lines treated with 1,309 distinct small molecules.


Three GHK profiles are contained in this repository.


In order to analyze the gene data obtained from the Connectivity Map, we used GenePattern (computational biology software developed specifically for the analysis of genomic data). The CEL files were processed with MAS5 and background correction. Files were then uploaded to the ComparativeMarkerSelectionViewer module in order to view fold changes for each probe set.


Due to multiple probe sets mapping to the same gene, we converted the fold changes in m-RNA production produced by GenePattern to percentages, then averaged all probe sets representing the same gene. It was determined that the 22,277 probe sets in the Broad data represent 13,424 genes. This ratio (1.66) was used to calculate the overall number of genes that affect GHK at various cutoff points (rather than probe sets).


The number of genes stimulated or suppressed by GHK with a change greater than or equal to 50% is 31.2% - GHK appears to be a molecule that resets gene expression to that of a young adult age of about age 20 to 25.


For more information, see:


Be sure to read Chapter 17: "The Science Behind SRCPs" (specifically the subheading: Breakthroughs as Broad Institute Data Expands the Understanding of GHK Actions) in the updated book Reverse Skin Aging - What Copper Peptides Can Do For You.


DOWNLOAD the Kindle/Tablet Version to your device to view more research highlights.


Best Wishes,

-Skin Biology

Dr. Loren Pickart who has a BA in Chemistry and Mathematics from the University of Minnesota and a PhD in Biochemistry from the University of California, San Francisco is dedicated to the research and further discussion of biochemistry, science, and health in all its applications.

Last edited by Skin Biology
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